Typical Communication Development K-5

Speech & Language Information » Communication Development Grades K-5
 

American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA) Practice Policy

Your Child's Communication: Kindergarten

By the end of kindergarten your child should be able to do the following:

Listening

Follow 1-2 simple directions in a sequence
Listen to and understand age-appropriate stories read aloud
Follow a simple conversation

Speaking

Be understood by most people
Answer simple "yes/no" questions
Answer open-ended questions (e.g., "What did you have for lunch today?")
Retell a story or talk about an event
Participate appropriately in conversations
Show interest in and start conversations

Reading

Know how a book works (e.g., read from left to right and top to bottom in English)
Understand that spoken words are made up of sounds
Identify words that rhyme (e.g., cat and hat)
Compare and match words based on their sounds
Understand that letters represent speech sounds and match sounds to letters
Identify upper- and lowercase letters
Recognize some words by sight
"Read" a few picture books from memory
Imitate reading by talking about pictures in a book

Writing

Print own first and last name
Draw a picture that tells a story and label and write about the picture
Write upper- and lowercase letters (may not be clearly written)

Your Child's Communication: First Grade

By the end of first grade your child should be able to do the following:

Listening

Remember information
Respond to instructions
Follow 2-3 step directions in a sequence

Speaking

Be easily understood
Answer more complex "yes/no" questions
Tell and retell stories and events in a logical order
Express ideas with a variety of complete sentences
Use most parts of speech (grammar) correctly
Ask and respond to "wh" questions (who, what, where, when, why)
Stay on topic and take turns in conversation
Give directions
Start conversations

Reading

Create rhyming words
Identify all sounds in short words
Blend separate sounds to form words
Match spoken words with print
Know how a book works (e.g., read from left to right and top to bottom in English)
Identify letters, words, and sentences
Sound out words when reading
Have a sight vocabulary of 100 common words
Read grade-level material fluently
Understand what is read

Writing

Express ideas through writing
Print clearly
Spell frequently used words correctly
Begin each sentence with capital letters and use ending punctuation
Write a variety of stories, journal entries, or letters/notes

Your Child's Communication: Second Grade

By the end of second grade your child should be able to do the following:

Listening

Follow 3-4 oral directions in a sequence
Understand direction words (e.g., location, space, and time words)
Correctly answer questions about a grade-level story

Speaking

Be easily understood
Answer more complex "yes/no" questions
Ask and answer "wh" questions (e.g., who, what, where, when, why)
Use increasingly complex sentence structures
Clarify and explain words and ideas
Give directions with 3-4 steps
Use oral language to inform, to persuade, and to entertain
Stay on topic, take turns, and use appropriate eye contact during conversation
Open and close conversation appropriately

Reading

Have fully mastered phonics/sound awareness
Associate speech sounds, syllables, words, and phrases with their written forms
Recognize many words by sight
Use meaning clues when reading (e.g., pictures, titles/headings, information in the story)
Reread and self-correct when necessary
Locate information to answer questions
Explain key elements of a story (e.g., main idea, main characters, plot)
Use own experience to predict and justify what will happen in grade-level stories
Read, paraphrase/retell a story in a sequence
Read grade-level stories, poetry, or dramatic text silently and aloud with fluency
Read spontaneously
Identify and use spelling patterns in words when reading

Writing

Write legibly
Use a variety of sentence types in writing essays, poetry, or short stories (fiction and nonfiction)
Use basic punctuation and capitalization appropriately
Organize writing to include beginning, middle, and end
Spell frequently used words correctly
Progress from inventive spelling (e.g., spelling by sound) to more accurate spelling

Your Child's Communication: Third Grade

By the end of third grade your child should be able to do the following:

Listening

Listen attentively in group situations
Understand grade-level material

Speaking

Speak clearly with an appropriate voice
Ask and respond to questions
Participate in conversations and group discussions
Use subject-related vocabulary
Stay on topic, use appropriate eye contact, and take turns in conversation
Summarize a story accurately
Explain what has been learned

Reading

Demonstrate full mastery of basic phonics
Use word analysis skills when reading
Use clues from language content and structure to help understand what is read
Predict and justify what will happen next in stories and compare and contrast stories
Ask and answer questions regarding reading material
Use acquired information to learn about new topics
Read grade-level books fluently (fiction and nonfiction)
Reread and correct errors when necessary

Writing

Plan, organize, revise, and edit
Include details in writing
Write stories, letters, simple explanations, and brief reports
Spell simple words correctly, correct most spelling independently, and use a dictionary to correct spelling
Write clearly in cursive

Your Child's Communication: Fourth Grade

By the end of fourth grade your child should be able to do the following:

Listening

Listen to and understand information presented by others
Form opinions based on evidence
Listen for specific purposes

Speaking

Use words appropriately in conversation
Use language effectively for a variety of purposes
Understand some figurative language (e.g., "the forest stretched across…")
Participate in group discussions
Give accurate directions to others
Summarize and restate ideas
Organize information for clarity
Use subject area information and vocabulary (e.g., social studies) for learning
Make effective oral presentations

Reading

Read for specific purposes
Read grade-level books fluently
Use previously learned information to understand new material
Follow written directions
Take brief notes
Link information learned to different subjects
Learn meanings of new words through knowledge of word origins, synonyms, and multiple meanings
Use reference materials (e.g., dictionary)
Explain the author's purpose and writing style
Read and understand a variety of types of literature, including fiction, nonfiction, historical fiction, and poetry
Compare and contrast in content areas
Make inferences from texts
Paraphrase content, including the main idea and details

Writing

Write effective stories and explanations, including several paragraphs about the same topic
Develop a plan for writing, including a beginning, middle, and end
Organize writing to convey a central idea
Edit final copies for grammar, punctuation, and spelling

Your Child's Communication: Fifth Grade

By the end of fifth grade your child should be able to do the following:

Listening

Listen and draw conclusions in subject area learning activities

Speaking

Make planned oral presentations appropriate to the audience
Maintain eye contact and use gestures, facial expressions, and appropriate voice during group presentations
Participate in class discussions across subject areas
Summarize main points
Report about information gathered in group activities

Reading

Read grade-level books fluently
Learn meanings of unfamiliar words through knowledge of root words, prefixes, and suffixes
Prioritize information according to the purpose of reading
Read a variety of literary forms
Describe development of character and plot
Describe characteristics of poetry
Analyze author's language and style
Use reference materials to support opinions

Writing

Write for a variety of purposes
Use vocabulary effectively
Vary sentence structure
Revise writing for clarity
Edit final copies

Reference this material as: American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. Typical Speech and Language Development.